TRANSCRIPTION/PRONUNCIATION KEY FOR NON-ENGLISH WORDS/PHRASES

Certain names and terms have been used in the text in their original Punjabi form. In order to facilitate their correct pronunciation, the following key has been used while transcribing the original into the Roman script:

Punjabi phonemes

(Gurmukhī script)

Letter/Vowel symbol

Hindi/Sanskrit

phonemes

(Devanāgarī script)

Letter/Vowel symbol

Urdu/Persian

Arabic phonemes

(Persian script)

Letter/Vowel symbol

Roman script

equivalents

َ                      اَ

a

ਆ        ਾ

       

ٓ                        آ

 

ਇ         ਿ

          ि

ِ                      اِ

i

ਈ         ੀ

         

ی                     اِ  +  یٔ

 

ਉ         ੁ

         

ُ                      اُ

u

ਊ         ੂ

        

و                      اُ  +  و

 

ਏ          ੇ

         

ے                      اِ  + ے

e

ਐ         ੈ

         

ے                      اَ  +  ے

ai

ਓ         ੋ

       

و                      او

o

ਔ         ੌ

       

ۉ                      او

au

ث    س    ص

s

ح    ھ     ہہ    

h

ک

k

کھ

kh

گ

g

گھ

gh

۔

 

چ

Ch or c (1)

چھ

Chh or ch (1)

ج

j

جھ

jh

۔

ٹ

ٹھ

ṭh

ڈ

ڈھ

ḍh

۔

ت    ط

t

تھ

th

د

d

دھ

dh

ن

n

پ

p

پھ

ph

ب

b

بھ

bh

م

m

یہ

y

ر

r

ل

l

و

v,w (2)

ڑ

(3)

ੜ੍ਹ

ڑھ

h

ش

Sh, ś

 

خ

kh

 

غ

gh

 

ذ    ز    ض    ظ

z

 

ف

f

 

 

ṛ (4)

 

 

ṣ (4)

 

क्ष

ع

k ṣ

 

त्र

ق

tr

 

ज्ञ

 

Jń, gi, gy(5) followed by vowel symbol q

TRANSCRIPTION/PRONUNCIATION KEY FOR NON-ENGLISH WORDS/PHRASES

Nasalization

(i)         ṅ preceding ਸ, ਜ, ਕ, ਖ, ਗ, ਘ, ਙ, ਯ, ਰ, ਲ, ਵ, ਸ਼

(ii)        ń preceding ਚ, ਛ, ਜ, ਝ, ਞ

(iii)       ṇ preceding ਟ, ਠ, ਡ, ਢ, ਣ

(iv)       n  preceding ਤ, ਥ, ਦ, ਧ, ਨ

(v)        m  preceding ਪ, ਫ, ਬ, ਭ, ਮ

 

(1)       Normally ch represents the sound ਚ, or چ and chh has been used for the heavier phoneme ਛ, or چھ but in exceptional cases while transliterating Sanskrit terms or texts, c and ch have been used for the two sounds, respectively.

(2)       Normally v has been used to represent Punjabi or Hindi and w to represent و of Persian script in words of Persio-Arabic origin such as kotwāl, fatwā, etc. There are, however, exceptions, as in the case of dīvān (religious assembly or congregation) and dīwān (title or institutional designation), or Goindvāl (place name in India) and Gujrāṅwālā or Peshāwar (place names in Pakistan). W has also been used in certain personal names where the individuals concerned are known to have used it when spelling their own names. For instance, Balwant Singh, Jawāharlāl. Tiwāṇā, etc.

(3)       In spelling some place names,ḍ has been used for to follow prevalent usage, e.g. Nāndeḍ and Jinvāḍā. There may be found some other instances where current usage has been preserved, as in Scindiā, Gwālīor, Lucknow or Phagwāṛā.

(4)       Use of ṛ and ṣ has been made sparingly in Sanskrit names and texts only. At other places ri and sh has been used to transliterate and , respectively. Examples are (Lord) Kṛṣṇa and (Guru Har) Krishan.

(5)       jń for ज्ञ is used only in spelling ज्ञान (jńān) and its derivatives in Sanskrit or classical   context Elsewhere gy or gi has been used as in Gyan or, more often, Giān.